BAOBAB
THE BAOBAB SERVER
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BAOBAB

BAOBAB APPLICATION SERVER

Part of the Rift Valley Platform

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BAOBAB Server and The Rift Valley Platform

ABOUT THE GREAT RIFT VALLEY PLATFORM

The Great Rift Valley Platform is a combined system of a central server (called "The BAOBAB Server"), providing a published API (Application Programming Interface), which is accessible via the Internet, and various "endpoint" apps, such as WordPress plugins and iPhone apps that connect to the server, and allow interpretation and andministration by end-users.

The server contains data. This data has the following characteristics:

There are two separate databases: One is a "big" database that contains the actual data, and the other contains logins (the user has a login ID and a password), along with what are called "security tokens." These databases can be entirely different servers and/or technologies.

Security tokens are simple integers that logins "own." If the login has this token (they can have a number of them), then a user that is logged in with that login will have either read/write, or read-only access to other logins in the security database, or data items in the main data database.

Every item, in either database, has a read token and a write token. This is a single security token in each field. They can be the same. If a user has a write token, then they also can read. If they only have a read token, then they cannot modify the item, and may not be allowed to see a "raw" location (more on that in a bit).

It is possible to allow any user (not just logged-in ones) read access to any data item, but non-logged-in users can never modify items. It is also possible to set item read tokens to allow any logged-in user to access the item (but no non-logged-in users). Of course, you can get a great deal more restrictive. Any data item can only have one token in the read slot, and one token in the write slot. You allow multiple logins to access these by giving the same token to multiple logins.

SECURITY DATABASE:

This contains either simple security tokens (items with no login information) or login records.

A login record has a login ID (a string) and a password (stored in a secure hash format. We don't store cleartext passwords). When a user logs in, the login session is also stored in the security database. It is timed, so the user has only a certain duration before they need to refresh their login, or they will be automatically booted.

Logins can be either regular logins (can log in, see and modify records), or a "manager" login (can create other logins. Any login with the appropriate write security token can edit other logins, but only managers can create or delete other logins).

One login (any type) can be "promoted" by the server administrator to be the "God" login. This login has full rights to everything. It is also given a different login timeout (usually shorter than the regular one). The "promotion" is actually done in code, on the server. There is a configuration file that is edited to do this.

All security database items (including logins) have a unique ID. This ID is a security token. By simply existing, a login has at least one token (its ID), but you can add a list of more tokens.

Security tokens are enforced at a very low level in the system. If a user does not have the requisite token to view an asset, then that asset is never even accessed in the database. It is "invisible" to the user. Additionally, the user is never informed of the existence of tokens they don't "own." They just never see them.

DATA DATABASE:

There are three kinds of default assets in the data database: People, Places and Things.

  • PEOPLE:

    People are "users." These can be associated with logins, but are not required to be associated with them, so you can have records of people that do not have access to the server. Additionally, logins do not have to have associated user objects. Associated user objects allow you to attach a lot more information to a login than what is provided by the security database; which is very simple.

  • PLACES:

    Places are locations. They have addresses.

  • THINGS:

    Things are fairly basic data "shoeboxes." They can be accessed by "keys," which are strings. You can attach pretty much any kind of data to a thing.

APPLIES TO ALL TYPES OF DATA DATABASE RECORDS:

Every item in the data database: Person, Place, Thing, has a set of common features. Some items are optimized to highlight certain data types, but they are all the same, under the skin:

  • PAYLOAD

    You can attach a big honkin' bit of data to every item. These shouldn't be too huge, but we've tested up to 10MB. We suggest using this for things like photos and PDFs. The platform does not encrypt this data at a low level, but it will have no problem storing pre-encrypted data. The data can be quite small, like a single character or integer number.

  • LONG/LAT

    Every item can have an associated longitude and latitude. If it has this, then you can do a location radius search, like you do with the BMLT. The big difference is that the search is a great deal more powerful than the BMLT search.

  • LOCATION OBFUSCATION

    This was something that was suggested by a therapist. Anything with a long/lat (i.e. any item in the data database), can be made "fuzzy." You give the item a "fuzz factor" in kilometers, and every access to the item's long/lat returns a slightly different result within a square that many kilometers away from the true location. You can give special tokens to certain logins that can "see through the fuzz," and access the "raw" locations, but otherwise, the real long/lat is never exposed.

    Of course, you can pooch the whole thing by providing an accurate address.

  • AGGREGATION

    You can attach other data database objects to data database records. These are called "children." Each "child" has its own security tokens, so being a "child" of an object does not automatically confer any rights. Think of a user having attached medical records. The records will stay attached to the users, but only logins with read tokens for those records will even know they exist. They will never appear for others, so you could publicize a name for a person, but their address information could be sequestered, and even more confidential information can be secured even more tightly. A "child" can be associated with multiple records.

SERVER TECHNOLOGY:

The server has deliberately been designed to use the most basic, vanilla hosting (like the BMLT). This means that it can be installed in fairly low-budget hosting solutions.

BAOBAB allows either MySQL or PostgreSQL to be used as the database engine. They can be completely separate from each other (no need to use the same server or even engine for both). This allows a configuarion like a hardened security database, while the main data database may be a high-performance database.

NO DEPENDENCIES:

Modern server technologists love dependencies. These are installations of third-party packages or usage of external (usually cloud-based) services. This means that the programmer voluntarily cedes control of some fairly significant resources and access to these third parties. In many of the published security nightmares you are reading about, dependencies are a big factor. Someone included a library that was written with an exploit, and that library runs as a full admin, so that means that anyone that can get into that library can also get into your app.

We've written every. single. line. of. code. in The Great Rift Valley BAOBAB Server. The only dependency is on a bog-standard PHP 7 installation. We don't even ask for special PHP packages. The standard install that most hosting companies use is fine. It's also written in "boring old PHP." This is not one of the "shiny new" languages. In fact, it's sneered at regularly by hipsters.

Except that it's a primary language for Facebook. They are actively supporting it and adding improvements to the language. It's not going anywhere, and it is fast as hell.

Of course, one of the things that you do get with dependencies is a much "shinier" product. You can add a lot of "bells and whistles" by adding these libraries. The BAOBAB server may seem "dorky" compared to some of what's out there, but it is solid, secure and fast.

THE BAOBAB REST API

The BAOBAB server is designed to be used as a low-level application server; part of a larger solution that includes client-focused SDKs. Access by client applications is to be done via the SDKs, meaning that the BAOBAB REST API is an internal Great Rift Valley interface.

The client SDKs will use this REST API to interact with the BAOBAB Server.

EXTENSIBLE

The BAOBAB Server specifies an extensible "plugin" architecture that allows development of custom REST "plugins." These are relatively simple PHP code modules that are placed in a certain directory, and can be used to provide interaction and processing of BAOBAB data. The default four plugins are "baseline, people, places and things." These are fairly basic resource-management plugins, and don't do much in the way of actual data processing.

BAOBAB provides a powerful security and data access facility, as well as a framework for HTTP interaction. Plugins can leverage these facilities. They are also "partly sandboxed" by the built-in security structure.

REST-LIKE, NOT REST-FUL

Although we will be referring to the BAOBAB API as a "REST" API; for the standard REST plugins, it is not actually a true "RESTful API" (although it is quite possible to write more plugins that are true REST plugins).

In particular, the GET and DELETE methods will work in a RESTful manner, but the POST and PUT methods will differ. Instead of full XML or JSON resources being transmitted to the server, we will use format-neutral query arguments to affect the operations.

STATELESS

Like other REST APIs, the server will operate in a "stateless" fashion, with each call being a completely atomic operation. State can be managed in the various client SDKs that accompany BAOBAB.

AUTHENTICATION

Authentication is accomplished by a 2-key system:

  • Server Secret

    Each BAOBAB server installation will specify a "secret," which is a random sequence of characters. This secret will be supplied to authorized client connectors, and will remain valid at the discretion of the server administrator.

  • API key

    The other part of the athorization will be a temporary dynamic API key that is provided on a realtime basis to users that initiate connections with the server. The user logs in once with a login ID and password, and an API key is returned to them. This key is timed, and may also be tied to the user's IP address. The timeout is set by the server administrator (default is 60 minutes for a regular login, and 10 minutes for a "main admin" login). API Key timeouts are "hard." They will not be reset or "touched" by interactions. It is up to the user process to track the time. If an API Key times out while a server process is under way, the process will conclude as normal, but subsequent calls will fail until the login has been renewed (and a new API Key is supplied).

When connecting to the BAOBAB server as an authorized user, you must include the Server Secret and the API Key in the Basic Authentication HTTP Header, like so:

In PHP (cURL):

// Authentication. We provide the Server Secret and the API key here.
if (isset($g_server_secret) && isset($g_api_key)) {
    curl_setopt($curl_resource_handle, CURLOPT_HTTPAUTH, CURLAUTH_BASIC);
    curl_setopt($curl_resource_handle, CURLOPT_USERPWD, "$g_server_secret:$g_api_key");
}

Or in JavaScript (AJAX):

// Authentication. We provide the Server Secret and the API key here.
if (g_server_secret && g_api_key) {
    xml_http_request_object.setRequestHeader('Authorization', 'Basic ' + btoa(unescape(encodeURIComponent(g_server_secret + ':' + g_api_key))));
};

The Server Secret is placed in the "login ID" place, and the API Key is placed in the "password" place.

Additionally, the server administrator has the option to require that all interactions be done via HTTPS (SSL/TLS). They can also specify that any subsequent connections of an authorized user must originate from the same IP address, and that the user cannot log in while a current login is still active (there is a "logout" command).

This header should accompany any GET, POST, PUT or DELETE operations that you make.

However, this won't work with FastCGI, so we also have the option to attach them as URI query arguments:

{GET|PUT|POST|DELETE} http[s]://{SERVER URL}/{RESOURCE PATH}?login_server_secret={SERVER SECRET STRING}&login_api_key={API KEY STRING}

Without authorization, you can only make GET calls. Additionally, you may be restricted from accessing some resources.

SECURITY

BAOBAB uses a "token-based" security system.

TOKENS

BAOBAB uses "security tokens," which are simple integers. These are generated and managed by Manager Users and the Main Admin User.

Tokens can be applied to any resource on the server. There are no "levels" to tokens. The same token can be used to secure nuclear launch codes, or your porn stash (PROTIP: Don't do that).

Any resource can have a single token applied as a read permission, and a single token applied as a write permission. When a user accesses a resource, the tokens "owned" by that user (including the user's own resource ID) are checked against the resource read and/or write tokens. If they do not match, the resource is either "read-only," or "invisible" to the user.

Tokens work by "obscurity." If a user does not have a token, then they should not ever even know the token exists (although tokens, being sequential IDs, can be guessed).

When a Manager creates a new user, that user's ID becomes another token, and is added to the Manager's "pool."

It is possible for users to have read rights to resources, but not write/modification rights. If a user has write/modification permission, they also have read permission for that resource.

Tokens are super-simple. They have no accompanying metadata (like names). The SDKs and client applications should be responsible for applying organizational characteristics to security tokens, and for providing a cognitive model of the token system to users and administrators.

Manager Users are given a "pool" of tokens that they can give to users they create. No user can have any tokens that the Manager does not have. Manager users can create new tokens, which are added to their pool, or another manager with a larger pool can give tokens to users (Managers or otherwise), and they have write permissions for the login (not user record) for that user.

Users cannot set their own security tokens. A manager must set the security tokens for any user (Manager or Standard User).

NOTE: When a manager deletes a user, the user's token ID remains (is converted to a simple token resource in the Security database). Tokens are "forever." Once created, they cannot be deleted.

USERS

There are only three levels of user:

  • Standard User

    This is a login that can access (and, if authorized, affect) resources on the server.

  • Manager User

    This is a standard user that also has the authority to create other users, modify user security tokens, and create new security tokens.

  • Main Admin ("God") User

    This is a server administrator account with full rights to all resources. There can only be one of these per server. Any user login can be "promoted" to the Main Admin, but the login is subjected to a more rigorous timeout than standard logins, and can be slower (sometimes, considerably so), as it can "see" the entirety of the server.

REST PLUGINS

BAOBAB uses a "plugin" system to provide primary-level REST API services. The default plugins are:

  • BASELINE

    This is a basic plugin that gives access to the tokens, and provides resource-blind search options.

  • PEOPLE

    This is a plugin that allows you to access user and/or login objects. Users and logins are two different types of resources, but are often linked. They can exist independently.

  • PLACES

    This is a plugin that manages resources that represent geographic locations.

  • THINGS

    This is a plugin that allows key/value storage of generic data. You can attach all kinds of data to these resources, but the data upload is MIME/FORM-MULTIPART or INLINE, and will be further discussed in the THINGS plugin documentation.

All of these resources can have geographic locations (long/lat), as well as the ability to aggregate other resources (of any type).

It is possible for a resource to aggregate resources to which the current user has no permissions. In these cases, the aggregated resources will be "invisible" to the user.

LOGGING IN/OUT

You cannot provide login credentials to resource access/modification calls. You must first make a simple "login" call, get an API Key, and then use that API Key and the Server Secret in the Basic Authentication HTTP Header in subsequent calls.

The server administrator has the option to require that the initial login call always be SSL (this should always be the case, but it is an option); regardless of whether or not the regular calls are SSL.

You make a login call in this fashion:

{GET} http[s]://{SERVER URL}/login?login_id=<YOUR LOGIN ID>&password=<YOUR PASSWORD>

Where "{SERVER URL}" is the root URL to the BAOBAB server, and the "login_id=" and "password=" query arguments reference the user string login ID and password (not the Server Secret or API Key).

The response from this call is a simple string, which will be the API Key. Once an API Key is generated, its "clock" starts ticking, and it will not be reset. Also, the server may be configured to prevent the same login from receiving a new API Key while one is still active, so it is important to retain this response.

You log out by calling the logout call, like so:

{GET} http[s]://{SERVER URL}/logout

This should be accompanied by the authorization header. The requirement for SSL is the one for regular interactions (independent of login). Once this has been successfully called, the API Key is no longer valid, and can be disposed of.

NOTE: Logout does not return 200 (OK) as an HTTP Status. Instead, it returns 205 (Reset Content). This indicates to the recipient that there is a different server context, and they should reset their content.

DATA FORMATS

BAOBAB will respond with four different formats:

  • PLAINTEXT

    The only guaranteeed time that you will receive a plaintext format is as a response to the "login" command; when you receive the API Key as a response. You can also get it as a response to access of THINGS resources, if you request it.

  • XML

    This is a BAOBAB-specifc XML dialect that will be defined by XML Schema documents.

  • JSON

    This is a very straigtforward JSON object model. Both JSON and XML will contain the same information, and will use the same keys.

  • XSD (XML SCHEMA)

    Each plugin can be queried for its XML data schema. The schema will be comprehensive, describing all possible responses from the plugin. XSD responses are always "publicly-accessible." There are no restrictions on reading them. They are read-only resources.

LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION

Despite the generic nature of the data contained within the BAOBAB dataset, special consideration is given to allowing all data to have a geographic location set (as a longitude/latitude -in degrees- value).

This means that you can use the BASELINE plugin to do "format-agnostic" searches, based on a location and radius, and find all available resources -of any type, within the search radius.

RADIUS SEARCH

You can search for all resources, using a radius search. This is when you supply a longitude and latitude, along with a radius (not diameter); describing a circle around the long/lat. This can be sent to BAOBAB as a search criteria, and any resources that have a position set that fall within that radius will be returned. Resources that do not have an assigned long/lat will not be included in the results.

LOCATION OBFUSCATION

It is also possible to obfuscate each location by a given distance, in Kilometers. If this is done, then the precise location will not be returned when the record is queried. Instead, a randomized long/lat will be returned. If the resource's actual location falls within the search radius, then it will be returned, but the long/lat will be different, and could actually be outside the requested radius.

This is a common practice for security, allowing a degree of privacy or security to people or institutions (think women's shelters, which often have confidential locations).

AGGREGATORS

Every resource is a "collection." That means that you can associate other resources with it, so you can have logical connections between resources.

LOCALIZATION FLAGS

Every resource in the BAOBAB server, regardless of its type, can have a "lang" data member. This is a simple ISO 639-1 or ISO 639-2 code. It is up to the client endpoint to provide localizations, but the resources can be flagged with localization hints.

RESPONSE HEADERS

Unsuccessful attempts at operations may result in response headers of 400 (Bad Request), 401 (Unauthorized), 403 (Forbidden), or even 500 (Internal Server Error).

Successful operations will return 200 (OK), or 205 (Reset Content), in the case of a successful logout.

In most cases, you will also receive some text that may help to explain the cause. For reasons of security, this may be limited (A good security practice is to keep people guessing as to what, exactly, happened).

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The Great Rift Valley Software Company

LICENSE

© Copyright 2018, The Great Rift Valley Software Company

LICENSE:

MIT License

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

The Great Rift Valley Software Company: https://riftvalleysoftware.com